Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics.[1] Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. After dyeing, dye molecules have uncut chemical bond with fiber molecules. The temperature and time controlling are two key factors in dyeing. There are mainly two classes of dye, natural and man-made.

The primary source of dye, historically, has generally been nature, with the dyes being extracted from animals or plants. Since the mid-18th century, however, humans have produced artificial dyes to achieve a broader range of colors and to render the dyes more stable to resist washing and general use. Different classes of dyes are used for different types of fiber and at different stages of the textile production process, from loose fibers through yarn and cloth to completed garments.

Acrylic fibers are dyed with basic dyes, while nylon and protein fibers such as wool and silk are dyed with acid dyes, and polyester yarn is dyed with disperse dyes. Cotton is dyed with a range of dye types, including vat dyes, and modern synthetic reactive and direct dyes.

Air Jet


This is another development of the very popular jet dyeing machines. The main difference between the Air Flow Machine and Jet Dyeing machine is that the airflow machine utilizes an air jet instead of the water jet for keeping the fabric in circulation. Typically the fabric is allowed to pass into the storage area that has a very small amount of free liquor. This results in a reduction in consumption of water, energy and chemicals.

The figure below shows how in an Airflow Machine the bath level is always under the level of the processed textile. Here the fabric does not remain in touch with the liquor (the bath used is below the basket that holds the fabric in circulation). This invariably means that the bath conditions can be altered without having any impact on the process phase of the substrate.

Jigger Dyeing Machine:

semi automatic jambo jigger77

Jigg or jigger dyeing machine is one of the oldest dyeing machine used for cloth dyeing operations. Jigger machine is suitable for dyeing of woven fabrics, up to boiling temperature without any creasing . Jigs exert considerable lengthwise tension on the fabric and are more suitable for the dyeing of woven than knitted fabrics. Since the fabric is handled in open-width, a jig is very suitable for fabrics which crease when dyed in rope form.

Some wovens are conveniently dyed on jigger are ,

  • Taffettas
  • Plain wovens
  • Satins
  • Poplins
  • Ducks
  • Suiting and Shirting material.
  • Sheetings etc.
But have limited application on fabrics which are tension sensitive such as crepes , flat crepes , knits , net fabrics and elastomeric warps etc.